Wed 21 Nov 2018

  Sikhism

Sikhism

Sikhism

Sikhism

Founded in India around 1500 AD by Guru Nanak, who lived from 1469 to 1539 AD, he was the first of the ten ‘gurus’, or teachers, of the Sikhs. Its main writings are contained in the Adi Granth, a Punjabi phrase meaning ‘The Original (or first) Book’, which was compiled by the fifth guru, Arjun, in 1604.

The Adi Granth is listed on the following page, with full link to a quite beautiful site detailing a full translation in English.

Adi Granth

The Adi Granth (Punjabi: “First Book”), the sacred scripture of Sikhism, is also known as Granth, or Granth Sahib (“The Granth Personified”). It is a collection of nearly 6,000 hymns of the Sikh Gurus and various early and medieval saints of different religions and castes.
The Adi Granth is the central object of worship in all gurdwaras (Sikh temples) and is accorded the reverence paid a living Guru. It is ritually opened in the morning and wrapped up and put away for the night. On special occasions continuous readings of it are held, which last from 2 to 15 days. On the birthdays of the Gurus or anniversaries commemorating Sikh martyrs, the Granth is sometimes taken out in procession.
The first version of the book was compiled by the fifth Sikh Guru, Arjun, at Amritsar in AD 1604. He included his own hymns and those of his predecessors, the Gurus Nanak, Angad, Amar Das, and Ram Das, and a selection of devotional songs of both Hindu and Islamic saints (notably the poet Kabir). In AD 1704 the tenth and last Guru, Gobind Singh, added the hymns of his predecessor, Guru Tegh Bahadur (the sixth, seventh, and eighth Gurus did not write hymns), and enjoined that after his own death the Granth would take the place of the Guru. The book opens with the Mul Mantra (basic prayer), which is a declaration of the nature of God as Truth, followed by the Japji (Recital), the most important Sikh scripture, written by the founder of the Sikh religion, Guru Nanak. The hymns are arranged according to the musical modes (ragas) in which they are to be sung. The language is mostly Punjabi or Hindi, interspersed with Marathi, Persian, and Arabic words.
After the death of Guru Gobind Singh his hymns and other writings were compiled into a book known as the Dasam Granth (q.v.).

There are at least three recensions (versions) of the Adi Granth that differ from each other in minor detail. The version accepted by Sikhs as authentic is said to have been revised by Gobind Singh in 1704. The Adi Granth contains nearly 6,000 hymns composed by the first five Gurus: Nanak (974), Angad (62), Amar Das (907), Ram Das (679), and Arjun (2,218). Gobind incorporated 115 hymns written by his father, Tegh Bahadur, in it. Besides these compositions, the Adi Granth contains hymns of the Bhakta saints and Muslim Sufis (notably Ravidass, Kabir, and Farid Khan), and of a few of the bards attached to the courts of the Gurus.
The Dasam Granth (“Tenth Book”) is a compilation of writings ascribed to Gobind Singh. Scholars do not agree on the authenticity of the contents of this Granth, and it is not accorded the same sanctity as the Adi Granth. Traditions of the Khalsa are contained in the Rahatnamas (codes of conduct) by contemporaries of Gobind Singh.

 

 

 

Adi Grantha

 

Sri Guru Granth Sahib English Translation

 

The Sikh Gurus never believed in the exclusivity of their teachings. The Gurus undertook travels to spread their message to peoples of different cultures in their own native languages. The Gurus did not believe in the ideas of any language being 'sacred' or 'special'. It is in this spirit that various Sikh scholars have undertaken efforts to translate Sri Guru Granth Sahib into a number of languages in order to spread the teachings of the Gurus and to bring the Sikh religion to the people of the world as Guru Nanak wished.

"Enshrine the Lord’s Name within your heart. The Word of the Guru’s Bani prevails throughout the world; through this Bani, the Lord’s Name is obtained." (Guru Amar Das, Maru, pg. 1066)

"All the sources of creation, and all languages meditate on Him, forever and ever." (Guru Arjan, Asa, pg. 456)

The Khalsa Consensus Translation presented here is regarded by some Sikh scholars as being among the finest and most accurate english translation currently available. The author, Singh Sahib Dr. Sant Singh Khalsa has faithfully attempted to follow the original Gurmukhi text as closely as possible and maintain accuracy in page breaks and the numbering notations found in Sri Guru Granth Sahib. An analysis of the available english translation as well as a direct comparison are also presented here in this category.

Because of it's musical nature and poetic style, no translation can ever hope to fully capture all of the moods and nuances of the original Gurmukhi version. At the same time the celebration of God and the Gurus teachings on how one should live their life found in Sri Guru Granth Sahib transcends cultural and linguistic boundaries and are universal in their appeal.

About the Currently Available English Translations

Direct Comparison of Translations

 

Read the English Translation

Table of Contents
Browse the index of Sri Guru Granth Sahib, where you can click on any of the hyperlinks to jump to a section or page number of the translation.

Comparison of the Five Complete
Translations of Sri Guru Granth Sahib

by Singh Sahib Dr. Sant Singh Khalsa

1. Bhai Gopal Singh Translation

The first complete translation of the Siri Guru Granth Sahib into English was provided by Dr. Gopal Singh; this was completed around 1960. It was published in a four volume set, and has received wide distribution. The 'International Edition' published by the World Sikh University Press in 1978, has a light blue cover.

Dr. Gopal Singh's stellar reputation for scholarly work in service of the Dharma is well deserved. In fact, the introduction to the work, in the first of the four volumes, is a remarkable work in and of itself. Especially readable and worthwhile is Section II: On the Philosophy of Sikh Religion. In this treatise on comparative religion, he traces the common threads of religious thought throughout the ages, giving one a deeper appreciation of Sikh Dharma. His brief explanation of the Kundalini and Yogic traditions is well-done.

His grammar, however, is somewhat antiquated and distracting.

For example:

"Yea Manifests He in a myriad ways."
"For several births thou wert a mere worm."
"He, (whose way is this,) Knows his Master and Compassion comes into him, And becomes Eternal he: he dies not thereafter."

He included excellent footnotes explaining legendary persons, Hindu mythology and local folk idioms, and these often reveal more clearly the true meaning of the Guru's Word. Often, he explains the linguistic derivation of a word or idiom. From his thorough understanding of comparative religion, he brings to light the common threads which run through Sikhism and other religions.

Page breaks are only roughly approximated to the original, and the numbering system of the original is roughly preserved, although there are a large number of mistakes in the numbers.


2. Manmohan Singh Translation

A very different translation was published just a short time after Dr. Gopal Singh's work came out. Back in 1948, after Sardar Manmohan Singh, a devout Sikh, lost everything worldly in the partition of India and Pakistan, he began work on what would be a lasting legacy. He worked on this for 12 years, completing it in 1960. This is the ëeight-volume setí with the original Gurmukhi, side-by-side with translations into English and Panjabi, with nearly every word individually cross-referenced across the three languages. The S.G.P.C. published and distributed this 8-volume set in a dark blue cover, starting with the first volume in 1962, and completing the eighth in 1969, the year in which Manmohan Singh passed on.

For the first time, Sikhs all around the world had access to a most practical resource in understanding the Word of the Guru. It has become common practice in all parts of the world to install this 8 volume set as Guru, and read out the Hukam in both Gurmukhi and English, and sometimes in Panjaabi as well. Many Gurdwaras, especially larger ones, have a single volume Bir installed, and use this 8-volume set to read out the translation.

Page breaks appear to be precisely placed, but are not correlated to the original with any precision, and there are many typographical errors. There are also small passages of the original which are omitted in this work-again, typographical mistakes.

Overall, this work represents a distinctly more accurate and direct translation of the Guru's Word, although it includes a large number of antiquated, idiosyncratic expressions more common to 18th and 19th century British India-words like mammon (for Maya), myrmidon, collyrium, mumpers, gnosis (for knowledge), apostates, sans (French for without), etc. Much of his grammar is so dated as to be distracting, and even confusing to the modern ear.

For example:

"Raising, the embankments of my mind's field, I gaze at the high sky or mansion. When Divine devotion enters bride's mind-home, the Friendly Guest pays her a visit."
He, who slanders Thy attendant, him Thou chrusheth and destroyest".

In spite of these difficulties, the translation has a much deeper impact, and a more obvious accuracy, than the Bhai Gopal Singh translation. It is very poetic, and conveys a sense of humility and devotion.


3. Gurbachan Singh Talib Translation

According to his own introduction to the book, Gurbachan Singh Talib of Panjabi University, Patiala, was assigned in 1977 the task of compiling a new translation of the Siri Guru Granth Sahib. It is grammatically the least satisfying - that is, the most distracting -of the three works so far.

For example:

"In listening to laudation of the Name etemal find I life."
"To whomsoever the vision of unicity does grant, propped by the holy congregation, of the Lord's love has joy"

He does include many useful footnotes, shedding some light on the Guru's Teachings. Overall, however, it adds little to the Manmohan Singh translation, and it has not superseded either of the previous translations. (This is the translation found on the commercial CD Scriptures & the Heritage of Sikhs - ssb)


4. Pritam Singh Chahil Translation

More recently, in 1993, another work was printed and made available. Pritam Singh Chahil printed the Manmohan Singh Edition back in Chandigarh, in the 1960's; in 1986, he was inspired by a Gurdwara service in Berkeley, in which the '8 volume set' was installed as Guru, and 'Shabad sheets' were passed out to the Sangat. He had a vision that the entire Guru should be printed in this three-column format, and so he set about to do it. He completed it in 1990, and in 1993, it became available.

It is in a three-column format, with Gurmukhi on the left, English translation on the right, and Romanised transliteration in the center of each page. He has made a fairly close, but not exact, approximation of page breaks, and preserved the numbering system fairly well.

This translation is a revised version of the Manmohan Singh translation, and as thus, it is the finest complete translation of the Guru yet published; its unique format allows the Guru's Word to be approximated in pronunciation, even by those who do not yet read Gurmukhi. However, the transliteration system used is the old British-English transliteration, wherein the word for - KAYSH - meaning 'hair' - is transliterated as KESH. Most modern readers will pronounce KESH to rhyme with 'mesh', thereby mispronouncing this important word. This is the same transliteration system by which most of us mispronounced -'Nit Naym'; {We read the transliteration 'NIT NEM', and we mispronounced it.} *'NIT NAYM' and KAYSH' are the correct pronunciations.

Also, some of the more distracting idioms and antiquated expressions of the Manmohan Singh translation are copied verbatim.

It is distributed in two forms: a four-volume set, and also a single volume. It is eminently suitable for installation in Gurdwara. It is a large volume, 12 by 17 inches (34 inches wide when opened). It is also a very valuable tool in the process of learning to read and understand Gurmukhi, although it does not have the word -to-word notations of the Manmohan Singh edition.


5. Khalsa Consensus Translation

This translation is already available on CD (and now on The Sikhism Home Page -ssb). It is based on all the available translations, working primarily from the Manmohan Singh translation. The objectives are:

first, to achieve an accurate translation of the Guru's Word;
to present the Guru's Word in an elegant format which follows the original as much as possible;
to eliminate the antiquated idioms which are so distracting to the modern ear,
to preserve the word order and symmetry of the original whenever possible: and
to achieve the immediacy of impact which the Guru's Word deserves in translation.

In this version, we are preserving exact page breaks to the original, along with all of the numbers at the ends of lines.

 

Direct Comparison of Translations

y Singh Sahib Dr. Sant Singh Khalsa

It might be illuminating to compare passages in the various translations.
Here is the Mul Mantra and the first Pauree of Jap Ji in the various translations:

Original Gurmukhi:


Bhai Gopal Singh Translation:

By the Grace of the One Supreme Being, The Eternal,
The All-pervading Purusha, The Creator, Without Fear, Without Hate,
the Being Beyond Time, Non-incarnated, Self-existent, The Enlightener.

MEDITATIONS
True in the Beginning, True in the Primeval age
True He is and True He shall be. [1]
Thinking avails not, how so hard one thinks;
Nor silence avails, howsoever one shrinks
Into oneself. Nor hunger goes
With the (Pleasure) loads of the worlds.
Of a myriad cleverness, not one works.
How then to be True? How rend the Veil of sham, untruth?
His Will (forsooth)
Inborn in us, ingrained,
Thou follow.
(Thus is Truth attained). [1]


Manmohan Singh Translation:

There is but one God. True is His Name, creative His personality
and immortal His form. He is without fear, sans enmity, unborn
and self-illumined. By the Guru's grace (He is obtained).

Embrace His meditation.
True in the prime, True in the beginning of ages,
True He is even now and True He, verily, shall be, O Nanak!
By pondering, man cannot have a conception of God,
even though he may ponder over lacs of time.
Even though one be silent and remains absorbed
constantly he obtains not mind's silence.
The hunger of the hungry departs not, even
though he may pile up loads of the worlds (valuables).
Man may possess thousands and lacs of wits,
but not even one goes with (him) or (avails him in the Lord's court).
How can we be true and how can the screen of untruth be rent?
By obeying, O Nanak! the pre-ordained order of the Lord of will.


Gurbachan Singh Talib Translation:

He is the Sole Supreme Being; of eternal manifestation;
Creator, immanent Reality; Without Fear;
Without Rancour; Timeless Form; Unincarnated;
Self-Existent; Realized by grace of the holy Preceptor.
Japu (Prayer-Chant)

In primal Time, in all Time, was the Creator;
Nothing is real but the Eternal.
Nothing shall last but the Eternal. (1)
Ritual purification, though million-fold, may not purify the mind;
Nor may absorption in trance still it, however long and continuous.
Possessing worlds multiple quenches not the rage of avarice and desire.
A thousand million feats of intellect bring not emancipation.
How then to become true to the Creator?
how demolish the wall of illusion?
Through obedience to His Ordinance and Will.
Saith Nanak :This blessing too is pre-ordained. (1)


Pritam Singh Chahil Translation:

The Creator of all is One, the only One. Truth is his name.
He is the doer of everything. He is without fear and without enmity.
His form is immortal. He is unborn and self-illumined.
He is realized by Guru's grace.

MEDITATE
He was True in the beginning. He was True through all ages.
He is True even now. Nanak says, He shall ever be True.
1. By pondering, one cannot have the conception of God even though
one may think million times. Even though one be silent and remain
constantly absorbed, He cannot be known by this siIence.

The hunger of the hungry does not appease even though one may collect
loads of worldly valuables. One may have millions of skills but none goes
with him in the hereafter. How can one become truthful and dispel the veil
of illusion? Nanak says by obeying the pre-ordained order of the Lord and
surrendering to His Will. 1.


Khalsa Consensus Translation:

One Universal Creator God.
The Name is Truth.
Creative Being Personified. No Fear. No Hatred.
Image Of The Undying, Beyond Birth, Self-Existent,
By Guru's Grace,

Chant And Meditate:
True In The Primal Beginning. True Throughout The Ages.
True Here And Now. O Nanak, Forever And Ever True. II 1 II

By thinking, He cannot be reduced to thought, even by thinking hundreds
of thousands of times. By remaining silent, inner silence is not obtained,
even by remaining lovingly absorbed deep within. The hunger of the hungry
is not appeased, even by piling up loads of worldly goods. Hundreds of
thousands of clever tricks, but not even one of them will go along with you in
the end. So how can one become truthful? And how can the veil of illusion be
torn away? O Nanak, He has written that you shall obey the Hukam of His
Command, and walk in the Way of His Will. II 1 II


Critique of the Above Translations:

In review of Bhai Gopal Singh's translation, what sticks out most are the forced rhymes, achieved by breaking up sutras and sentence structure, and the frequently inserted parenthetical phrases. These create unavoidable distractions for the reader. Moreover, his use of word such as 'howso' and 'forsooth', words not in common usage, further detract from the impact of the rendering.

Manmohan Singh's translation is perhaps even more obtuse to the modern reader. He uses words such as 'lacs' (meaning tens of thousands), which will be understandable to the Indian reader, but not to those who are not conversant with either Panjaabi or Gurmukhi. He also includes words such as 'sans', a French term meaning 'without'. This term, unfortunately, will be meaningless to the less erudite reader. As mentioned above, other antiquated expressions abound, such as apostates, myrmidons, mumpers, mammon, etc.

He often uses phrases which are not grammatically correct, such as, 'Even though one be silent and remains absorbed constantly he obtains not mind's silence.' And, similarly to Bhai Gopal Singh, he inserts parenthetical phrases of words not actually in the original Gurmukhi, which are intended to more fully elucidate the meaning of the passage. Again, the use of parentheses is usually distracting.

Gurbachan Singh Talib takes much wider license with the Guru's Word, so that the original is often not even locatable in the translation. While all others have translated 'soch' in the first Pauree of Jap Ji as 'thought' or 'conceptualization', he alone translates it as 'ritual purification'. And when translating 'Hai bhee sach, Naanak hosee bhee sach', instead of the accepted translation of 'sach' as'Truth', he translates these lines as, 'Nothing is real but the Eternal. Nothing shall last but the Eternal.' Instead of parentheses to denote words and phrases added to the translation which are not in the original, he uses italics, which is still distracting.

His grammatical phrasing also frequently fails to conform to standard usage: 'How then to become true to the Creator? how demolish the wall of illusion?'

As with the previous translations, these grammatical errors stick out to the well-versed reader of English, and detract from their impact.

Pritam Singh Chahil's translation more closely approximates readable English in its phraseology and idioms, and this translation is now the premiere translation, the standard by which others will be compared. But his grammar, once again, falls short of the mark: For example,'. . . even though one may think million times.', and 'The hunger of the hungry does not appease even though one may collect loads of worldly valuables.'

The Khalsa Consensus Translation has been written in contemporary English, maintaining consistent grammar. The idioms are those in common usage, and word order reflects the original whenever possible. Repeated words in the original are faithfully repeated in the translation. For example: 'Simaro simar simar sukh paavao' -'Meditate, meditate, meditate in remembrance, and find peace.' Page breaks are exactly correlated with the original single-volume Bir.

 


Date:- 21 Feb 2015 ।